Just what is essential to your health?
In part one we covered vitamins. Our focus in part two is on minerals, primarily the major minerals and their importance to our health.
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs naturally in pure form. (1) Your body needs a wide variety of nutrients every day to stay healthy. Minerals, as opposed to vitamins, which are organic compounds, are inorganic compounds that come from the soil. There are a total of 16 minerals which are divided into two groups: major minerals and trace minerals, which is based on how much you need each day. Both groups of minerals are equally important for your health. You simply need more of the major minerals to maintain optimal health. More specifically, you need more than 100 mg of major minerals and less than 100 mg of trace minerals daily. Major minerals are also referred to as electrolytes (chemicals that conduct electricity when mixed with water). The electricity created when electrolytes move in and out of the cells helps keep your body hydrated, ensures your nerves and muscles are functioning properly, balances pH in the blood, keeps blood pressure normal, and helps repair damaged tissues. Trace minerals are otherwise known as microminerals. So let’s see what these are and what they do for us. (2)
Calcium (Ca) is an important mineral and the most abundant in the body, found in the teeth, bones, and nails and serving a number of vital functions. Humans need calcium to maintain strong bones and 99% of the body’s calcium is found in the bones and teeth. It’s also necessary for maintaining good communication between the brain and other parts of the body. It ais in muscle movement, especially in cardiovascular function. It’s essential for clotting the blood when needed and aids in muscle contraction, especially the heart muscle. And it serves to provide certain enzymes and the control of the passage of fluids through the cell walls. (4) Calcium helps lower the risk of developing conditions associated with high blood pressure and lowers blood pressure in those who are younger and pregnant who get enough calcium, as well as lowering cholesterol. It may even play a role in preventing colon cancer. (3)(4)Calcium and phosphorus keep your bones and teeth healthy, while sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium all work together to make sure your nerves can transmit signals properly. Additional benefits are a lower risk of developing conditions involving high blood pressure during pregnancy, lower blood pressure in young people, lower blood pressure in those whose mothers consumed enough calcium during pregnancy; improved cholesterol values, and a lower risk of colorectal adenomas, a type of non-cancerous tumor. (2)
Symptoms of calcium deficiency: Weaker bones, delayed growth, nervous irritability, and muscle sensitivity. (4) The more serious symptoms are mental confusion, irritability, depression, and anxiety, tooth decay, insufficient blood clotting, bone fractures, Osteopenia or Osteoporosis, growth and development delays in children, heart problems involving blood pressure and heart rhythms. Less serious symptoms would be numbness, tingling fingers, muscle cramps, lethargy, poor appetite, weak or brittle fingernails, difficulty swallowing, and fainting. (20)
Some conditions and lifestyle habits that can lead to deficiency are bulimia, anorexia, and some other eating disorders, mercury exposure, overconsumption of magnesium, long-term use of laxatives, prolonged use of some medicines, such as chemotherapy or corticosteroids, chelation therapy used for metal exposure, lack of the parathyroid hormone, people who eat a lot of protein or sodium, some cancers, high consumption of caffeine, soda, or alcohol; some conditions, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and some other digestive diseases; some surgical procedures, including removal of the stomach, kidney failure, pancreatitis, vitamin D deficiency, and phosphate deficiency. (21)
The RDI/AI for Calcium varies with age. See the following:
- 0–6 months: 200 milligrams (mg)
- 7–12 months: 260 mg
- 1–3 years: 700 mg
- 4–8 years: 1,000 mg
- 9–18 years: 1,300 mg
- 19–50 years: 1,000 mg
- 51–70 years: 1,000 mg for males/1,200 mg for females
- 71 years and above: 1,200 mg
- Pregnant and breastfeeding women require 1,000–1,300 mg depending on age. (5)
There are, however, certain factors can affect the amount of calcium needed. Some experts insist that less is needed when other nutrients are present. For example, vitamin C allows for better absorption of calcium. Calcium is more easily absorbed and works more effectively when accompanied by magnesium. (6) Vitamin D3 allows for better absorption of calcium into the bloodstream. (7) So if these other nutrients are in proper ratios in the body, calcium requirements may not be as great. Another substance that aids in calcium absorption is Juniper Ash. (8)
Some substances can hinder calcium absorption. Phytates or phytic acid found in many foods (nuts, legumes, grains, etc.) can hinder the absorption of calcium into the body. (9)
Another substance that is known to block the absorption and utilization of calcium (and magnesium) is oxalate or oxalic acid. Oxalate binds to calcium and takes it into the urine where it can create calcium oxalate stones in the kidneys (kidney stones). (10)(11) Caffeine is also known to hinder calcium absorption. (14) Sugar is especially known to hinder mineral absorption, including calcium. (15)(16)
Calcium can come from a number of sources. While there are various forms of calcium, the most abundant is carbonate calcium. This is found in many rock substances from marble, chalk, or limestone, which many cheaper supplements are made from as well as eggshells, oyster shells, and others as coral. Calcium phosphate is also sourced from rocks. And some plants contain calcium which can be calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, and calcium carbonate such as from algae and ground or garden plants. Then there is Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite (MCHC Calcium) which is sourced from animal bones. (12) Most supplements are rock sources and mixed with organic chemicals or acids to make them more bioavailable. One of the more commonly known is Calcium Citrate which is made from marble or limestone (chalk) and then mixed with synthetic citric acid. (This is one to avoid as citrate is not considered healthy by some experts). You can learn why in this article on Antinutrients. The best supplements will be those that are chelated, which are mixed with an amino acid for improved bioavailability. As with most nutrients, including minerals, it’s best to get calcium from food. The most bioavailable and possibly healthiest source is MCHC from animal sources. Perhaps more so with calcium as many sources say supplementing calcium can rob your bones of the mineral and increase the risk of fractures. (13)
There is a long list of foods that contain calcium. Some of the healthier choices are broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cottage cheese/curds, hard cheese, and whey protein (these should be sourced from organic, pasture-raised, raw dairy; coconut milk, canned salmon and sardines, and sauerkraut. Other healthy sources are meat (red meat, poultry), egg yolks, fish and seafood, kelp, parsley, parsnips, pumpkins, sweet potato, chili powder, thyme, and olives. Less healthy choices would be leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, beans and lentils, grains seeds, nut, rhubarb, and tofu – but these contain oxalates that will hinder the absorption of calcium and other minerals as oxalic acid binds to the calcium. Other foods like dates, oranges, and other fruits, along with blackstrap molasses, most dairy (milk, yogurt, kefir) contain calcium but also contain sugar (lactose) which can also hinder the absorption of calcium (and other minerals). (4)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(22)
Excess/Overdose – Hypercalcemia is a condition caused by excess calcium in the blood which can weaken bones, create kidney stones, and interfere with how the heart and brain work. It can be a result of overactive parathyroid glands; cancer, certain other medical conditions, some medications, and taking too much calcium and vitamin D supplements. (28)
Chloride (Cl–) is one of the least heard about minerals. So why is it important? Chloride is another electrolyte that forms in the body when certain compounds become negatively charged and work with other electrolytes like bicarbonate, sodium, and potassium. An example most are familiar with is sea salt or table salt when chloride becomes sodium chloride. It is a component of salt used in cooking and some foods.
The benefits of chloride are found in the regulation of fluid amounts in the body and maintaining the pH balance of acids and bases, regulating the acid/alkalinity of the blood. It also aids in the creation of digestive juices and hydrochloric acid in the stomach’s cells. It’s absorbed in the body when food is digested and leaves in the urine. It’s also used in the transmission of nerve impulses. (23) In addition to digestion, Chloride offers the enhancement of physical fitness. It acts as a neutralizing agent to balance electrolyte and alkaline levels in the body, improving physical health. It also assists the liver during the cleansing process so it helps the liver to more effectively remove water products from the blood/body. (24) Within the stomach, chloride appears in the form of hydrochloric acid which helps break down the food so it can be absorbed by the small intestines and be effectively digested. (25) Chloride also helps maintain proper blood pressure as well as helping conserve potassium levels. (27)
Chloride deficiency symptoms: Hypochlroremia is primarily seen as an electrolyte imbalance caused by the depletion of chloride ions in the blood. Symptoms are dehydration, low levels of chloride in the blood, muscle spasticity and weakness, shallow depressed breathing, sweating, high fever, Hyponatremia (low blood levels of sodium), and Tetany which is seen as spasms in the feet and hands, and voice box; cramps, and overactive neurological reflexes. Although rare, one of the more serious conditions is “alkalosis” which can be life-threatening. This occurs when the blood becomes overly alkaline. A major loss of sodium, and consequently chloride, happens when one experiences heavy excess sweating during exercise or excessive heat, prolonged diarrhea and/or vomiting. Symptoms include profound lethargy, dehydration, irritability, loss of appetite, and muscle weakness. (26)
According to the Food & Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences –
The RDI/AI for Chloride per day are as follows –
infants 0-6 months _.18 g
infants 7-12 months _.57 g
children 1-3 yrs. _1.5 g
children 4-8 yrs. _1.9 g
males and females – ages
9-50 yrs. _2.3 g
51-70 yrs. _2.
71+ yrs. 1.8 g
pregnant and lactating women 2.3 g (27)
Minimum for all is 750 mg per day (25)
Chloride is found in salt and sea salt, processed foods, condiments, scrambled eggs and omelets, boiled prawns and crab; canned salmon, sardines, and tuna in oil, fried fish cakes, and raw oysters. It is also found in most grilled or fried bacon and or pork, canned ham, beef sausage, and corned beef; cheddar and parmesan cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and processed cheese; and most canned vegetables.
Excess/Overdose – Electrolyte imbalance leads to hyperchloremia. Dehydration, fluid loss, vomiting, or diarrhea. More severe disorders are diabetes and kidney failure.
Magnesium (Mg) – is possibly one of the most important minerals of all and it’s estimated half the population doesn’t get enough. It is vital for a number of functions in the body, including improved heart function. It relieves constipation, relaxes muscles, works with calcium to strengthen the bones, treats migraines, helps diabetes, relieves PMS and anxiety, prevents asthma, increases energy, helps produce collagen, regulates bladder function, prevents eclamptic attacks, and is priceless for addressing inflammation. (29) One of its main roles is acting as a cofactor or helper molecule in the biochemical reactions performed by enzymes. Because of this, it aids in energy creation, protein formation, gene maintenance, muscle movement, and nervous system regulation. It also helps fight depression, type 2 diabetes, helps lower blood pressure and insulin resistance. (30)
The deficiency of magnesium can lead to a number of issues since it helps with so many. It can result in excessive alcohol consumption, gastrointestinal disorders, and the use of certain medications. Deficiency is also linked to cardiovascular problems, insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and osteopenia/osteoporosis. (29) Other milder symptoms of deficiency may include loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, fatigue, and/or weakness. More severe symptoms might include muscle cramps, numbness, tingling, seizures, personality changes, heart rhythm changes, or spasms. Research has also shown Alzheimer’s, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and migraine headaches being linked to magnesium deficiency. (31)
Healthy foods with magnesium include avocados, bananas, bitter gourd leaves, chestnuts, cranberry, dark chocolate, coconut (dried), cod, coriander (dried), fatty fish (salmon, tuna), fish (mackerel, sablefish, pollock, ling, haddock, sturgeon, kippered herring, turbot), grape leaves, hemp seeds, Irish moss, kelp, potato with skin, pumpkin, seafood (abalone, crab), sea vegetables, squash, sweet potato, watermelon, whelk, wild rice; less healthy choices are brown rice, buckwheat, chickpeas, corn millet, dairy (kefir, yogurt, whole milk), dates, figs, flax/flaxseed oil, leafy greens, natto, nuts, oats, quinoa, seeds, legumes, prickly pears, sunflower seeds, tamarinds, teff, tofu, tomato, soy, wheat germ, and whole grains. (32)(33)(34)(35)(37)
Excess/Overdose – though rare, just as with deficiency, can cause GI disorders, the most common being diarrhea, nausea, and/or cramping. Very large doses can cause kidney problems, low blood pressure, urine retention, nausea, vomiting, depression, lethargy, loss of central nervous system (CNS) control, cardiac arrest, and possibly death. (36)
Phosphorous (P) is found in bones, teeth, and the protoplasm and nucleus of every cell. It is used in more bodily functions than any other mineral. The role of phosphorus is to build healthy bones and teeth (in combination with calcium).
Roles of phosphorus in the body: Phosphorus is used to build healthy bones and teeth (in combination with calcium); to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; to build nerve and brain cells. It aids in healthy digestion, eliminating toxins from the body, preventing fatigue and weakness, and preventing arthritis and osteoporosis. It is beneficial for healthy brain function, aiding in digestion, protein metabolism, cell repair, regulating hormones, and weight loss. (37) It’s also vital for performing essential activities for different parts of the body such as the kidneys, heart, and blood. It is especially important for children when growth and development occur most. (38)
Phosphorous deficiency or hypophosphatemia can lead to conditions such as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. An improper balance of phosphorous and calcium may cause osteoporosis. (39) Additional conditions caused by deficiency are the loss of appetite, anxiety and mental confusion, bone pain, brittle bones, stiff joints, irregular breathing, irritability, numbness, weakness, changes in body weight, fatigue or exhaustion, anemia, speech problems, and increased infection. (41)
RDI/AI for Phosphorous is 700 mg with an upper limit (UL) of 4000 mg up to age 70 with a UL of 3000 mg above 70 years old for both men and women. (42)
Healthy food choices for phosphorous are broccoli, cheddar cheese (should be organic, pasture-raised and raw), chicken (should be organic and free-range), dark chocolate*, fish, garlic, organic meats including pork, and sunflower and pumpkin seeds. Lesser choices are corn, (whole grains, legumes (beans and lentils), nuts and nutty spreads)*
*These contain oxalates that will bind to the phosphorous and prohibit absorption providing only partial levels. (40)
Excess/Overdose – can lead to cardiovascular disease, nonskeletal calcification of tissues (especially the kidneys, where it can create stones), and poor digestibility of iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Excess phosphorous in the body occurs frequently and may be brought on by kidney disorders or consuming too much phosphorous in food and especially soft drinks that don’t have sufficient calcium. Larger amounts of phosphorous in the body creates a greater need for calcium. (41)
Potassium (K) helps guard against inactive reflexes, abnormal heartbeat, heart palpitations, anemia, severe headaches, as well as high blood pressure. It also wards off pain in the intestines and swelling in the glands. It benefits neural activity, stabilizes blood sugar, reduces muscle disorders, and cramps. It is especially beneficial for bone health. Potassium helps ease symptoms of anxiety and stress, as well as boosting metabolism, and helps to regulate water balance and fluids in the body. (43) A high potassium intake reduces the risk of overall mortality by 20%. It also decreases the risk of stroke as well as lowering blood pressure. It protects against the loss of muscle mass, preserves bone mineral density, and reduces the formation of kidney stones. The primary function of potassium is in regulating fluid balance and controlling the electrical activity of the heart and other muscles. (44)
Potassium deficiency is noted in symptoms of malaise and fatigue, weakness, and muscle pain all over the body, and constipation with low levels. Extremely low levels can cause severe muscle weakness and paralysis, respiratory failure, painful obstructions in the gut; tingling, crawling, numb or itchy sensations felt mainly in the hands, feet, legs, or arms; and intermittent muscles spasms. Normal potassium levels are given as between 3.5 and 5 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Hypokalemia is diagnosed when potassium levels fall below 3.5 mmol/L. Mild potassium deficiency will generally not present symptoms. A potassium level lower than 2.5 mmol/L is considered extremely deficient, and symptoms will become more severe as levels reduce. (45)
Healthy food choices for potassium include avocados, bananas, beet greens, cantaloupe, citrus fruits, chicken, coconut water, mushrooms, potatoes, poultry, many other vegetables, salmon; and raw, organic, pasture-raised whole milk; tomatoes,. Less wholesome choices would be almonds, grains, legumes, lima beans, and other nuts. (43)
Excess/Overdose – can be extreme. Just as critical as it is in being deficient, consuming too much potassium can be harmful to those with kidney dysfunction. Excessive potassium can lead to hyperkalemia, a condition that prevents the kidneys form not getting enough. This can be dangerous if it escalates. Potassium levels between 5.1 and 6.0 mmol/L are considered high and warrant monitoring and management. Levels higher than 6.0 mmol/L can be extremely dangerous. Most notice no symptoms with hyperkalemia and present few symptoms but when they are presented, one might see heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and chest pains. At this point, it can become life-threatening and may require immediate medical attention. (46)
Sodium (Na) is possibly the most important of the major minerals. Did you know the word “salary” comes from the Latin for salt? Sodium is so essential to human survival that without it, our cellular function and neural communication would shut down. It’s critical to absorb certain nutrients from the digestive tract like glucose and allows some molecules that couldn’t otherwise pass through the cell membrane to cross. It also aids in the function of the nervous system and for muscular contraction as nerves send signals conducted through the movement of positively charged sodium particles. Sodium helps maintain fluid balance in the body. Because sodium draws water to it, the kidneys use it to actively resorb sodium into the bloodstream allowing the body to hold onto water longer, according to Dr. Lauralee Sherwood in her book “Human Physiology.” (47) One of the benefits of sodium is heart performance as it’s needed for blood regulation. (48) Sodium helps to prevent muscle cramps as well as diabetes. It helps to promote digestion and therefore also stimulates appetite, oral health, restful sleep, weight loss, and healthy brain function. It helps in the maintenance of vascular tone and maintaining the body’s pH levels. It can help prevent sunstroke as well as better cope with cystic fibrosis. (49) One other benefit of sodium is it helps eliminate carbon dioxide. (52)
Sodium deficiency is another area that leads to critical issues with one’s health and Hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood) causes symptoms of brain dysfunction such as sluggishness (lethargy) and confusion. If sodium levels drop quickly, symptoms tend to develop rapidly and are more severe causing muscle twitching and seizures. Some may become unresponsive and eventually cannot be aroused (coma) where death may follow. (50) One of the more serious areas of health is the nervous system will begin to shut down. Other signs of deficiency are noted with diarrhea, vomiting, headache, weakness, low blood pressure, weight loss, and muscular irritability. (48) Hyponatremia is defined as a sodium concentration of less than 135 mmol/L, with severe hyponatremia being below 120 mEq/L. (51) Additionally, symptoms of nausea, indigestion, arthritis, rheumatism, gallbladder, and kidney stones may result. (52) Insulin resistance has also been linked to sodium deficiency as well as heart attacks and strokes. One study found that less than 3,000 mg of sodium per day is linked to an increased risk of dying from heart disease, including heart attacks and strokes (56) Disturbingly, another study reported a higher risk of dying from heart disease at the lower sodium levels that many guidelines currently recommend. An increased risk of heart failure is also a result of deficiency. It’s thought to raise LDL cholesterol. Additionally, an increased risk of death from a heart attack or stroke by those with diabetes is indicated. (56)(57)(58)
RDI/AI for Sodium varies among sources.
2400 mg per day (male/female) (48)
(1.5 g (1500 mg) ages 19-50
(1.3 g (1300 mg) age 50+ (53)
2300 mg (maximum) (USDA) (National Academy of Medicine NAM) (54)
1500 mg (55)
Wholesome sources for sodium are seeds, strawberry, melon, sea asparagus, fish, naturally extracted salts. Note that sodium chloride (refined table salt) is a bad source of sodium and poisonous to the body. Natural Sea Salt is another source such as Redmond REAL Salt (a sea salt extracted from ancient salt beds). Learn more about which salts and seas salts to avoid in “Salts: What Do You Know About Them?” (52) Other good sources are apples, homemade soups, cabbage, egg yolks, pulses, bananas, carrots, baking powder, baking soda, turnips, leafy vegetables, and dried peas. (48)
Excess/Overdose – has been linked to high blood pressure.
People over 50, black people, and those with diabetes, high blood pressure, and kidney disease should limit their intake to no more than 1,500 mg per day to avoid the complications caused by too much sodium in their bodies. (56)
Sulfur – (S) is the last of our major minerals which is the so-called “miracle mineral”. Unlike the smelly, yellowish chemical element that belches out of volcanoes, organic sulfur is white in color, completely odorless, and non-toxic. This naturally-occurring sulfur compound is used by all living things to transfer oxygen from the air you breathe and the water you drink, into your cells. It’s also critical to making glutathione, an antioxidant our bodies make to protect us from free radicals. The technical name for this organic compound is methylsulfonylmethane or MSM for short. (59) After calcium and phosphorus, it is the third most abundant mineral in the human body. It is needed for insulin production. It detoxifies at the cellular level and relieves pain. Sulfur supports and builds flexible cells in the arteries and veins – the opposite of “hardening of the arteries.” It keeps your complexion clear and youthful and hair glossy and smooth. Sulfur is applied to the skin for dandruff and itchy skin infection caused by mites (scabies). It is also applied to the skin for acne and skin redness (rosacea), and taken orally for many other conditions, but there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses. MSM has anti-allergic properties. MSM has the ability to bind to mucous membranes and form a natural block against allergens. Another way MSM can alleviate allergies is through detoxification, elimination of free radicals, and improvement of cell permeability. Together with vitamin C, your body uses organic sulfur (MSM) to create new, healthy cells and connective tissue. Another benefit of MSM is that it is linked with getting more oxygen from the air you breathe. Organic sulfur helps heal old scar tissue, stretch marks, and fibroids, in addition to slowing the aging process and wrinkling, as well as fighting cancer due to its high oxygenating properties, and its positive effects on the skin help with symptoms of acne, rosacea, psoriasis, and liver spots. It’s a boost for heart health and works wonders in digestive issues and the treatment of IBS, GERD, and Leaky Gut Syndrome. It’s a plus for healing hemorrhoids. Dr. Ronald Roth has shown that it is excellent in addressing Alzheimer’s due to its ability to block the absorption of aluminum. In this 12-week trial, it was shown organic sulfur was effective in bringing down pain and swelling while improving range of motion. It also showed promise for those who suffer from alopecia or hair loss, respiratory disorders including COPD, metabolic disorders, obesity, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and osteoporosis, and endometriosis. It also increases energy, improves flexibility, and fights inflammation. Additional benefits are known for muscle spasms and pains, mood disorders, hepatitis and liver problems, glaucoma, and sulfur deficiency, and helps mobilize vitamin D from the sun. (60)(61)(62)(63)(64)
Deficiency of Sulfur is presented in a number of symptoms that include fatigue and sluggishness; brittle nail and hair, hair loss and slow or poor growth of hair and fingernails; arthritis/joint pains; skin problems that include rashes, dermatitis, and eczema; skeletal and growth problems, varicose veins and poor circulation, increased aging, inability to digest fats and/or foods, blood sugar problems, increased allergies, and parasitic infestations. (Nimmi, 2007) (64)
The RDI/AI value for Sulfur has no officially designated amount so there is no recommended daily intake for sulfur. However, the National Academies Food and Nutrition Board suggests that 0.2 to 1.5 grams per day should be enough to meet our body’s needs. As most people eat between 3 to 6 grams per day, insufficient dietary sulfur is not a common issue. One source says the average person takes in around 900 mg of sulfur per day, mainly in the form of protein. (64)
The best food sources that contain sulfur are seafood, meat; organic, pasture-raised dairy products; eggs, fish; most vegetables, especially onions, leeks, shallots, chives, garlic, cabbage, broccoli, asparagus, cauliflower, bok choy, Brussels Sprouts, kohlrabi, turnips, kale, lettuce, and seaweeds; as well as fruits including raspberries, apricots, and peaches. Others are nuts, seeds, grains and cereals, sauces, jams and spreads, and many beverages. (63)(64)
Excess/Overdose – is not really heard of as elemental sulfur is not toxic, but many sulfur derivatives are, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide. As for supplements, MSM overdose is apparently very rare. Even if it happens, patients do not suffer any serious health hazards. Symptoms like detox acne breakout, heartburn, dizziness, and abrupt weight gain tend to occur. Severities are usually uncommon unless you have some pre-existing heart disease. (64)(65)
This concludes part two on major minerals. Click the following link for Vitamins, Minerals, & Omegas, Oh My! Part 3 – Trace Minerals
Written by Douglas K. Johnson – Life, Health and Wellness Coach, Herbalist, Nutritionist, and Author
https://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2007/10/geezer036.html (loss of calcium/vitamin C)
(35) Vitamins & Minerals 101 – Chris Materjohn
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The views expressed on this blog and website have no relation to those of any academic, hospital, practice or other institution with which the authors are affiliated.
The views expressed on this blog and website have no relation to those of any academic, hospital, practice, or other institution with which the authors are affiliated.